Friday, May 15, 2020

Review of Anti-angiogenic Therapy in Breast Cancer - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 872 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/02/06 Category Medicine Essay Level High school Tags: Breast Cancer Essay Did you like this example? Abstract Tumors need sustained blood and nutrition supply in their growth and achieved by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) families, so the anti-angiogenic therapy(AAGT), which aims at stopping the VEGF route to inhibit the overexpression of VEGF ligand family, have huge potential in curing tumors. But in breast cancer treatment, this kind of treatment did not show great efficiency and efficacy, that means AAGT is not as good as scientists believed initially. But there still be great potential to improve this therapy by combining to other treatment like chemotherapy or gene-target therapy to inhibit its toxicity and tumor cell resistance.. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Review of Anti-angiogenic Therapy in Breast Cancer" essay for you Create order Introduction This opinion paper helps to understand the mechanism of anti-angiogenic therapy(AAGT), its promises, and pitfalls surrounding usage of breast cancer, discuss the present perspective, and explore future direction of both applications of AAGT and treatment of breast cancer. Tumor growth needs a sustained purveyance of nutrients including oxygen to maintain the expansive proliferation of tumor cells. Therefore, the tumor could induce the germination of new vessels from the surrounding vascular [fig1]with several types of cytokines and growth factors especially VEGF-A. Plus, VEGF usually over-express in most solid cancers [1]. Plus, several preclinical research shows that inhibition VEGF works in animal models for suppressing tumor growth[2,3]. Therefore, inhibition of sprouting angiogenesis by blocking the VEGF signaling pathway exists in suppressing tumor in human beings. (Fig 2) [1]. Breast cancer is a malignant tumor arising from the cells of the breast, which is the most common cancer among American women. Breast cancer has more than five different types, including Ductal carcinoma in situ, Invasive ductal carcinoma, Invasive lobular carcinoma and some other much less in common ones[4]. In breast cancer, the level of angiogenesis is relevant to survival, that is, high levels of VEGF and other angiogenic factors indicate high-risk disease correlating with a poor prognosis.[5] Search strategy I gained all the information from current years’ journal paper in both AAGT and breast cancer treatment. Went through those data, analyzed all information provided in recent journals, discussed both advantage and disadvantage of this therapy and came out with the personal presentation of the future usage of AAGT and breast cancer treatment as well. Discussion According to those literatures, I could get the conclusion that 1) the basic mechanism of tumor vessels is thinner the wall of vessel cell owing to lacking pricytes, this diminish changed the permeability within both same and different tumors[6], that abnormal vascularity could increase the tumor resistant to chemotherapeutic agents; 2) VEGF inhibitors cannot provide long-lasting clinical response in all patients [7], where the VEGF-target therapy resistance could be explained with two mechanisms: tumor will not respond with an outset of treatment, that is, they have intrinsic resistance, or they do respond the treatment at very beginning, but receiving the ability to withstand treatment during growth, which means they developed the acquired resistance[8]. preclinical tests also show that VEGF- target therapy has less effective stopping the establishment of tumor vessels[9].3)in breast cancer part, Phase 3 clinical trials of VEGF routes inhibitors shows partially sensitive answered in AAGT[10] this conclusion could be verified by randomized trials in breast cancer, including four agents: metastatic 1st line, metastatic 2nd line and beyond, adjuvant and neo-adjuvant.[1] studies show that there is no significant improvement in overall survival(OS) and partially improved the progression-free survival(PFS), Bear HD et al.[11] and von Minckwitz G et al.[12] found that Doxorubicin/docetaxel/ cyclophosphamide  ±bevacizumab and Epirubicin/docetaxel/Cyclophosphamide  ± bevacizumab ) treatment in HER-2 negative population can improve the complete response rate in pathology at the primary endpoint. From what have been showed before, we can see that the AAGT does not works as effectively as we thought initially. But we can also find out that single agent given treatments are all failed, but the joint of the addition of bevacizumab agent to chemotherapy in HER2-negative transferred breast cancer(AVADO, RIBBON-1, and RIBBON-2) showed no improvement in OS, but PFS does, than chemotherapy[1]. It results from the limitations of AAGT showed in fig 3[13]. And these failures and limitation give us a new direction of anti-angiogenic remedy in breast cancer rather than laying into the non-effective situation at present. On the other hand, in the last ten years, HER2-directed therapy has already been a mature remedy of curing HER-2-positive breast cancer which is the most common type. And new delivery of chemotherapeutic agent choosing such as monoclonal antibodies, small molecule inhibitors, and antibody-drug conjugates are also an aspect of improving the efficacy and effectiveness of drugs no matter in which type of treatment including AAGT. Future direction By addition to some herbal medicine or other kinds of drugs, AAGT may also show the huge potential in curing breast cancer[14] in the future, for reducing the toxicity and resistance of present drugs. In my opinion, even the AAGT shows almost nothing in present preclinical trials, and some studies found herbal medicine could help reduce the toxicity during the treatment, Chinese traditional treatment including traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture etc could be used as an Adjuvant, or the combination of chemotherapy, that is, all the limitation could help to search the really useful and effective treatment not only in breast cancer but also changing AAGT into an available, operative and profitable remedy.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Human Memory Recognition And The Dual Process Model

Recognition memory is a particular aspect of explicit memory which enables one to correctly determine whether a stimulus has been previously encountered. A much debated question is how human memory recognition operates. Generally, there have been two dominant approaches which have attempted to elucidate recognition memory; these include the single-process theory and the dual-process theory. The single process models were initially based on the signal detection theory (SDT); arguing that familiarity and recollection are based upon a single process continuum that represent weak (familiarity) and strong (recollection) memories (Reder, Arndt Park, 2006). However, the dual process models have gained additional supporting evidence claiming that recognition is not founded along a single continuum; but founded on two distinct processes: recollection and familiarity (Reder et al., 2006). Respectively, recognition and familiarity are sometimes referred to as ‘remember’ and †˜know† or the remember/know paradigm. The remember/know paradigm was initially introduced by Tulving (1985), to investigate the hypothetical conscious awareness that accompanies memory retrieval (Dunn, 2001). The dual process view postulates that recollection and familiarity are identified as independent processes. It is a widely held view that recollection typically demonstrates the retrieval of contextual information regarding a particular study episode, for instance this qualitative information could beShow MoreRelated Learning Styles and the Brain1645 Words   |  7 Pagescontexts, learning style lies at the foundation of individual identity and development. Learning, the process of acquiring knowledge about the world (1) and learning style, ...the sum of the patterns of how individuals develop habitual ways of responding to experience (2) reflect an array of attitudes, emotional responses, preferences and habits. It is the basis of how we interact with, process and are subsequently affected by inputs from our environment. In addition to providing a general overviewRead MoreComputers And Conscious Problem Solving Essay1694 Words   |  7 PagesA. Studying Memory a. Memory- The persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information. I. Memory Models a. Information-processing models are analogies that compare human memory to a computer’s operations. b. To remember any event, we must: -get information into our brain, encoding - retain that information, storage - later get the information back out, retrieval c. Encoding- The processing of information into the memory system—for example, by extracting meaningRead MoreThe Psychological Aspects Of The Mental Welfare Of Individuals1850 Words   |  8 PagesLanguage is a human phenomenon that throughout history has aided in the communication between individuals and contributed to the psychological welfare of individuals. Having the ability to communicate is the most important evolutionary trait that has occurred. Since communication allows a species to be able to create sounds that have a distinctive meaning. Those meanings being everything from warning calls, mating calls or simply chatters to declare ones territory. Language is a human equivalent toRead MoreThe Effect Of Pictorial Condition And Verbal Condition Essay2387 Words   |  10 Pagescorrect responses in a memory test Abstract The aim of the experiment was to test whether pictures or words would lead to an increased recognition response. The picture superiority effect suggests that pictures are better recognised than words. This is shown by supporting researchers. Standing et al (1970) found that participants who studied over 2000 pictures, 90% of those had accurately recognised them after several days. Paivio had also suggests that pictures are dual coded which explains whyRead MoreElectronic Identification Based On The Identity Of Human Beings And Reducing Forgeries1547 Words   |  7 PagesSignatures continue to be an important biometric for authenticating the identity of human beings and reducing forgeries. The major challenging aspect of automated signature identification and verification has been, for a long time, a true motivation for researchers. Research into signature verification has been vigorously pursued for a number of years and is still being explored, especially in the offline mode. In th is paper, we have discussed a brief overview of offline signature verification techniquesRead MoreWorking Memory5992 Words   |  24 Pagesï » ¿Working Memory ââ€"  Working memory enables us to keep things in mind for short periods (215 seconds) as we think, e.g. while reading, making a list etc. ââ€"  It s related to but different to short-term-memory (STM) and long-term-memory (LTM). ââ€"  Chapter focuses on Baddley s (1986) model of phonological working memory, vocabulary acquisition and computational modelling of working-memory. ââ€"  The concept of span means how many items from a briefly presented set can be remembered, e.g. word spanRead Moreevaluation of the WMM2112 Words   |  9 Pagesï » ¿CEP – Evaluation of the Working Memory Model Atkinson’s and Shiffrin’s (1968) multi-store model was extremely successful in terms of the amount of research it generated. However, as a result of this research, it became apparent that there were a number of problems with their ideas concerning the characteristics of short-term memory. Building on this research, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) developed an alternative model of short-term memory which they called working memory. Baddeley and Hitch (1974) arguedRead MoreThe Theory Of Perception And Knowing1760 Words   |  8 Pages This â€Å"inferential leap† becomes even more complex when applied to the social world. In a similar vein, Bruner posited that sensory information is given meaning based on prior percepts. Even the immediate recognition of an object, known as phenomenal immediacy, entails a categori-zation process that operates on an unconscious level. Use of meaning in making inferences was a fundamental component of Gestalt psy-chology. To Gestalt psychologists, a mental representation was composed of many partsRead Moreworking memory18399 Words   |  74 PagesCHAPTER Working Memory 6 Le arn i ng O b j ec t i ves 1. Using Working Memory 1.1. A Computer Metaphor 1.2. Implications of the Nature of Working Memory 2. From Primary Memory to Working Memory: A Brief History 2.1. William James: Primary Memory, Secondary Memory, and Consciousness 2.2. Early Studies: The Characteristics of Short-Term Memory 2.2.1. Brevity of Duration 2.2.2. Ready Accessibility 2.3. The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model: The Relationship of Short-Term and LongTerm Memory 2.4. The Baddeley-HitchRead MoreLoss and Grief Essay3238 Words   |  13 Pagesremember with love rather than pain. It is a sorting process. One by one you let go of things that are gone and you mourn for them. One by one you take hold of the things that have become a part of who you are and build again. —Rachael Naomi Remen. MD 1966. Introduction In this essay I will outline the main theoretical models relating to loss and grief. I will show how these theories may support individuals within the counselling process. To demonstrate the above I will draw upon my experience

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Nutrition Science Common Foods Booklet

Questions: 1. Find the Dietary Reference Intakes for protein, iron, calcium, and vitamin A. Then, determine how much of each nutrient was consumed by calculating the total amount of protein, iron, calcium, and vitamin A in the above given day. Which nutrients are higher than the recommendations? Lower than the recommendations? 2. Determine the total number of servings from each food group was actually eaten for the given day. Compare this to what is recommended in Canadas Food Guide to Healthy Eating for a man of Marcos age. Which food groups are in higher amounts than recommended? Which are lower? 3. What is your overall impression of the diet analysis you performed? Should your character be concerned? Why or why not? What are the possible health consequences if your character continues to follow his/her current eating pattern? Make a few specific recommendations that can simultaneously improve the food groups and the nutrient intake for your character. Answers: 1. According to the Canadas dietary reference intakes, the recommended values for protein, iron, calcium, and vitamin A are: Protein= 60gms Iron= 14mgs Calcium= 1000mgs Vitamin A= 900g/day PROTEIN From Marcos diet diary, each nutrient amount could be calculated for a given day. Marco consumed 120g broiled haddock, which contains majority of the protein. 4oz of broiled haddock contains 21.43g of protein. 1 cup (250 ml) 2% milk contains 8.3g. 2 plain pancakes contain 4.26g. cup (125 ml) vanilla ice cream contains 3.5g. 1 cup (250 ml) cream style corn contains 4.5g. cup (125 ml) peas and carrots contain 3g of proteins. Hence, total protein consumption in a day for Macro is almost 45gms, which indicates that protein consumption is lower than the recommendations ("Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide - Main Page - Health Canada"). IRON 2 plain pancakes contain 1.2mgs of iron. 3 tablespoons (45 ml) maple syrup contains 3.6mgs. grapefruit contains 0.1mg. 1 almond butter sandwich contains 4mg. 2 stalks celery contains 0.2mg of iron. 4 oz (120 g) broiled haddock contains 0.3mg. 1 cup (250 ml) cream style corn contains 1mg. cup (125 ml) peas and carrots contain 0.9mg. 12 oz. can of cola contain 0.4mg. Hence, it could be calculated from the diet that total iron consumption in a day for Macro is almost 12mgs, which is less than the recommended intake. CALCIUM Marco consumed 1 cup (250 ml) 2% milk, which contains majority of the calcium in his days diet. 1 cup (250 ml) 2% milk contains 300mgs of calcium. 2 plain pancakes contain 116mg. 45 ml maple syrup contains 63mg. grapefruit contains 27mg. 1 almond butter sandwich contains 74mg. 2 stalks celery contain 50mg of calcium. Twice consumption of 12oz of cola contains 14.8mg. 2 chocolate chip cookies contain 6.2mg. 120 g broiled haddock contains 120mg. 250 ml cream style corn contains 1mg. 125 ml peas and carrots contain 23mg. So, it could be calculated from the diet that total calcium consumption in a day for Macro is almost 800mgs. However, the recommended consumption is 1000mg, which indicates lower calcium consumption than the recommendations. VITAMIN A grapefruit contains almost 424 g. 250 ml 2% milk contains almost 138 g. 1 almond butter sandwich contains almost .54 g. 2 stalks celery contains 86.10 g. 120 g broiled haddock contains 17 g. 250ml cream style corn contains 57 g. 125 ml peas and carrots contain 2880 g. 125 ml vanilla ice cream contains 127 g. So, it could be calculated from the diet that total vitamin A consumption in a day for Macro is almost more than 3000 g that indicates higher consumption of vitamin A than recommended daily intake (Sizer, Whitney and Kicklighter). 2. The total number of servings from each food group that was actually eaten for the given day: Legumes and vegetables, Fruit: minimum one orange and dark green vegetable. Marco consumed grapefruit, 2 stalks celery, cup peas and carrots, 1cup cream style corn, Cereal: 2 slices whole wheat bread, 2 plain pancakes Fish: 4 oz broiled haddock Milk: twice 250 ml 2% milk, cup vanilla ice cream Recommended servings per day as per the Canadas Food Guide to Healthy Eating for a man of Marcos age: Legumes and vegetables: 8-10 Fruit: 8-10 Cereal: 8 Fish: 3 Milk: 2 From the comparison, it could be mentioned that his milk intake was accurate. His fruit consumption should be increased. No water intake has been mentioned but he should cut down calorie-rich drink like cola (Flora, Gupta and Tiwari). He consumed meat alternatives like beans, which is recommended by the guide. Macro had 2 slices whole wheat bread, which is beneficial ("Nutrient Value of Some Common Foods Booklet - Health Canada"). 3. The calculations would enable to provide an impression of Macros diet and from the analysis it could be mentioned that the character need to be concerned. This is because his protein, iron and calcium consumption is lower than the recommendation ("Dietary Reference Intakes"). However, his diet was rich in vitamin A. If he continues to follow his current eating pattern, he might develop various health consequences. Constant consumption of excessive vitamin A may cause skin discoloration, bone pain and liver damage (Taylor et al.). Simultaneously, low protein in diet may increase physical weakness and lack of calcium affects the bones to a major extent and cause osteomalacia and osteoporosis (Haugen and Musser). Iron deficiency may also give rise to fatigue, breathing shortness, skin paleness and so on (Goodnough). Marco should be recommended to have protein, calcium and iron rich diet. Though Marco included all types of food groups in his diet, he should focus on the number of serv ings per day to maintain a balanced diet. References "Dietary Reference Intakes".Hc-sc.gc.ca. N.p., 2016. Web. 3 Nov. 2016. "Eating Well With Canada's Food Guide - Main Page - Health Canada".Hc-sc.gc.ca. N.p., 2016. Web. 3 Nov. 2016. Flora, Gagan, Deepesh Gupta, and Archana Tiwari. "Toxicity Of Lead: A Review With Recent Updates".Interdisciplinary Toxicology5.2 (2012): n. pag. Web. Goodnough, Lawrence Tim. "Iron Deficiency Syndromes And Iron-Restricted Erythropoiesis (CME)".Transfusion52.7 (2011): 1584-1592. Web. Haugen, David M and Susan Musser.Nutrition. Detroit: Greenhaven Press/Gale Cengage Learning, 2012. Print. "Nutrient Value Of Some Common Foods Booklet - Health Canada".Hc-sc.gc.ca. N.p., 2016. Web. 3 Nov. 2016. Sizer, Frances, Ellie Whitney, and Jana R Kicklighter.Nutrition. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2014. Print. Taylor, Pennie J et al. "A Review Of The Nature And Effectiveness Of Nutrition Interventions In Adult Males A Guide For Intervention Strategies".Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act10.1 (2013): 13. Web.

Monday, April 13, 2020

Edward Weston American Photographer Essays - Guggenheim Fellows

Edward Weston: American Photographer Edward Weston: American Photographer Daniel J Brophy History of Photography Term Paper ?Weston is, in the real sense, one of the few creative artists of today. He has recreated the matter-forms and forces of nature; he has made these forms eloquent of the fundamental unity of the work. His work illuminates man's inner journey toward perfection of the spirit.? --Ansel Adams, Date Unknown Edward Weston (1886-1958) may seem like he was a confused man in trying to find his photographic goal(s). Just like many other photographers, both of his time and now, he strove to find what truly satisfied his talent and the acceptance of himself. He generated something for all photographers. This was success and recognition as a ?grand master? of twentieth century photography. This was a legacy that tells an interesting tale; it tells a tale of a thousand plus successful and loved photographs, a daily journal, and a life with its ups and downs and broad dimensions. He was born in Highland Park, Illinois, and thus he was an American photographer. His mother died when he was five, possibly the reason for his skipping out of his schooling. At the age of sixteen (1902), his father bought him a Kodak box camera (Bull's-Eye No. 2). Soon he was saving money to buy a better 5x& camera with a tripod. Taking photographs interested and obsessed him. He wrote, ?I needed no friends now. . .Sundays my camera and I would take long car-rides into the country. . .? In 1906, two things happened. First, a submission of his was printed in the magazine Camera and Darkroom. This photograph was called simply ?Spring?. Secondly, he moved to California to work as a surveyor for San Pedro, Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad. From that time on, his interests lied in everything that was unorthodox (astrology, the occult, nudism, vegetarianism, etc.). Maybe he never was much of an orthodox type man or photographer. He went back to Illinois for several months to attend the Illinois College of Photography. The inspiration behind this was to show his girlfriend, a daughter of a wealthy land-owner that he'd make money for them. He then headed back to California for good. This lead to marriage in 1909 and to two sons soon afterwards. During this time, Weston also became the founding member of the Camera Pictorialists of Los Angeles. 1911: Began a portrait studio in Tropico, California. This studio would stay open until 1922. Also 1911: He started writing articles that were published in magazines. One of these magazines was called American Photographer. His third and fourth sons were born in 1916 and 1919. Weston had always enjoyed photography as an art, but, in 1915, his visit to the San Francisco Panama Pacific Exhibition began a series of events that would lead him to a renouncement of pictorialism. At the exhibition, he viewed abstract paintings. These caused him to vow to capture ?the physical quality of the objects he photographed with the sharpest truthfulness and exactitude?. Thus began a dissatisfaction with his own work. In 1922, he traveled to Ohio and took photographs of the Armco Steel Plant and then went to New York. There he met Alfred Stieglitz, Paul Strand, Charles Sheck and Georgia O'Keefe. After that, he renounced pictorialism all together. He often traveled to Mexico during the 1920s, and his photographs included nudes. One of these nudes, named Tina Modotti, would turn into his own personal love affair, breaking up his marriage. He made many photographs in Mexico. Some were published in the book Idols Behind Altars by Anita Brenner. During this time, he also began to photograph seashells, vegetables and nudes. In 1929, his first New York exhibit occurred at the Alma Reed's Delphic Studios Gallery and later showed at Harvard Society of Contemporary Arts. His photographs were shown along with the likes of Walker Evans, Eugene Atget, Charles Sheeler, Alfred Stieglitz, and many others. In 1932, he became a Charter member, along with Ansel Adams, of the ?Group f/64? Club. The club was also founded that same year. The goal of this club was to ?secure maximum image sharpness of both foreground and distance?. In 1934, Weston vowed to make only unretouched portraits. He strived to be as far away from pictorialism as he could. In 1935, he initiated the Edward Weston Print of the Month Club. He offered photographs for ten dollars each. In 1937, he was awarded the first Guggenheim fellowship. In 1940, a book called California and the West featured his photographs and the text of Charis Wilson his new

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Coldwar essays

Coldwar essays The conflict in ideologies between capitalism and communism resulted in one of the greatest conflicts of the twentieth century. The belief that freedom and democracy would die under communist rule caused the United States to start a conflict that would last for decades. The decisions made by the United States in W.W.II caused tensions to rise between the U. S. and the Soviet Union. Fear of Communism in capitalist nations, caused the United states government to use propaganda to raise Cold War anxieties. Furthermore, the American media influenced the attitudes of Americans, making a hatred of communism spread though the nation. Thus, the United States caused the conflict known as the Cold War, through its political policy and propaganda. The political relations going on in Europe during and directly after World War II had an enormous effect on laying the foundation for the Cold War. War time conferences such as Yalta and Terhran harshened the relationship between the communists and th e capitalists. At the end of W.W.II American policy towards the Soviets changed drastically. The change in president in 1945 caused relations with Russia to worsen. Furthermore, other political contributions to the Cold War entailed the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan. The division of Europe between the west and east drew physical borders which outlined that the war of misinformation that had began. Also treaties of the post war world further separated the two super powers of the world for the decades to follow. The waging of hot wars through other countries also strengthened Cold War hatred.(1) The first of the cold war tensions arose out of W.W.II conferences between the Soviet Union, America and, Great Britain. Tehran, the first major conference which lead America to start the Cold War, included all three of these nations. At this conference the reshaping of post-war Europe was discussed (2) Later in February of 1945, the big three met again at Y...

Monday, February 24, 2020

HR Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

HR - Essay Example The company’s structure is clearly shown in the diagram below. The chief executive is at the top of the hierarchy and is in charge of all the operations in the company. Below him in the hierarchy is the management board and the customer and operations executive (British airways Plc.). In the daily operations of the company the chief executive is assisted by the chief financial officer and the leadership team. The members of the leadership include the commercial director, the chief information officer, the director of engineering, director of people and organizational effectiveness, general counsel and director of investments and alliances (British airways Plc.). The company’s SWOT analysis is used to show the company’s strategic positioning in the market and its strengths and weaknesses. The company boasts of having a wide range of strengths making it a market leader in the airline industry in the UK and the global scene. To begin with, the company has a strong brand image that makes it stand out in the market. Secondly, the opensky agreement supports its operations (British airways Plc.). Thirdly, the company has an expansive fleet which translates to a huge customer base. Fourthly, the company has a highly skilled work force that ensures delivery of quality customer service. Finally, the company benefits from economies of scale due to its level of operations and vast market base. On the other hand, the company is faced by various weaknesses including competition in cost as compared to ‘low fare’ airlines (British airways Plc.). Increasing costs of managing operations in various parts of the world, huge debt burdens and unfunded employee post retirement benefits. Other weaknesses include a high number of labor strikes and a powerful labor union. The company can exploit opportunities in various areas. These include emerging markets in Asia Pacific and other parts of the world (British airways Plc.). British Airways faces

Friday, February 7, 2020

Analyze an ad Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Analyze an ad - Essay Example So as to minimize the seriousness of the message, visual symbols are applied (Danna 100). For instance, in the ‘father and mother I love you’ ad, there were no real people used to portray the message, only the moving letters F-A-M-I-L-Y and caricatures. This essay analyzes the ‘father and mother I love you’ ad in terms of cultural ideas and the nature and effectiveness of the rhetoric used. Analysis The ‘family and mother I love you’ ad portrays the roles of parents in the family: the father as the ‘pillar’ and ‘shelter’ and mother as the light and guardian. It is a metaphorical ad in the sense that it only uses symbols to communicate its message. The word ‘family’ is at the center of the ad and it shows the changes the ‘family’ went through. It shows how the father and mother care for the family, how the child grows up, how s/he eventually left the family to have a life of his/her own, how the parents aged, and how their grownup child returns to them to take over the responsibility over the family. The initial background shows a home, and then the latter part shows the outside world where hardships are experienced, which is symbolized by the rain. Cultural ideas and stereotypes are effectively used in this advertisement. It elicits a powerful emotional impact because it appeals to the traditional idea that the family is all about love, compassion, and sacrifice, especially on the part of the parents. One of the main cultural ideas used is that we should take responsibility of our parents when they are getting older. Our parents took care of us when we were young and still helpless, and so it is our responsibility to take care of them when they get old and weak. This form of familial responsibility is embraced in most Asian cultures. In many Asian countries, the children are expected to take care of their parents when they grow up. It is a disgrace to leave the parents in an institution or transfer the responsibility of caring for them to a relative or professional caregiver (Adamson 88). On the other hand, in several Western countries, parents expect their children to be independent and learn to take care of themselves, not their parents (Rama 24). However, in more traditional Western homes, the family is still the most important part of children’s lives. There are also cultural stereotypes used. The parents are shown to be the loving and self-sacrificing people in the family. It suggests that parents should never be disappointed by their children. It tries to say that we are here because of our parents and that fact alone is enough to make us remember our responsibility to our parents. There are numerous parents in the world who feel frustrated and disappointed of their children because of their lack of respect and irresponsible attitude toward their family. This is depicted in the ad where the ‘I’—the child—begin s to disobey his/her parents and break their rules. The disappointment of ‘F’—the father—and ‘M’—the mother—is shown by their crying. But many parents tolerate their children’s foolishness and forgive their mistakes because of parental love and sacrifice. These parents are willing to bear the pain only if it means comfort and a good life for their children. Thus the cultural stereotyp